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Stress test in athletes, what we can expect.

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The stress test (EE) requested by a physician in the assessment of an athlete has two main goals:
-S Ensure the absence of cardiac or respiratory cons-indication to the achievement of maximum effort.
- Assess the level of training and possibly give the sporty concrete elements to improve performance.
We must differentiate immediately EE in cardiology goal made after myocardial infarction or in the balance sheet of an arrhythmia, arterial hypertension or heart failure. Even if looking identical symptoms (chest pain, difficulty breathing, discomfort to stress, etc.), the EA will be stopped here at the theoretical maximum heart rate (FMT) reached.
The EA must be performed in a specialized center and if possible in a structure with experience in the care of athletes. It can be done either on a cycle ergometer (cycling) or treadmill; exercise to get close closer to the physical activity.
The EA must be maximum, ie led to exhaustion of the subject (whether muscular or respiratory depending on the type of test and the physical conditions of the athlete) to intervene within 15 to 20 minutes after a warm-up time.
The doctor overseeing the EA must adapt its protocol to the patient and to the sport; he can change the type of test and especially levels of the latter, ie the increase in exercise intensity (initial intensity, changing the difficulty between landings duration of the stage). We do not test at all in the same way a marathon runner and a squasheur because their efforts have nothing to do so by their duration and by their intensity.
Expected key information for an EA:
° Determination of VO2max (maximal oxygen consumption achieved by the patient during physical activity and is one of the main predictors of performance). The maximum oxygen consumption depends on the amount of muscle mass setting in. In order to compare the aerobic fitness of a 60 kg woman with that of a man of 85 kg, the relative value of VO 2 will be used in ml O2 consumed per minute and per kilogram of body weight.
° maximum aerobic power (LDCs on bike and on carpet VMA) which corresponds to the smallest power (on bike) or speed (on mat) associated with the VO 2max. this element is essential to program such intensity interval training
° actual maximum heart rate.
° The ventilatory threshold (SV1 and SV2).
o    The SV1 occurs generally between 50 and 70% of maximum heart rate and below which the metabolism is mainly aerobic, with no significant increase in lactate and allows a very long effort. Work "endurance".
o   The SV2 observed between 80 and 90% of maximum heart rate helps support an effort of less than one hour. Work in "resistance" .L'entrainement beyond this threshold corresponds to the work in installments.
° Quality of recovery and speed return to normal heart rate and oxygen consumption.
Once the test completed and analyzed, the doctor gives more information to the sports (or sports of course!) So that it can take account of these field elements:
VO 2 ° max.En made ??little of practical value except to "compare" other (blah ...) but above all to itself between seasons or after resumption of sports.
° positioning of the two thresholds that helps determine the pace of work during training and the speed of the race.
° the actual maximum heart rate that can replace the FMT for the calculation of thresholds.
° the LDCs and the VMA to plan split sessions.
In conclusion, the EE is a rich examination information for the sports program allowing it to his training and evaluating the performance expected for the competitions. This is a review of the more interesting is that the sports which the beginner level sought amounted to adjust closer to the training sessions. It will by cons of little use in the "old" who often know as accurately without the need for further examination.

Doctor Charles AISENBERG. - 27 mars 2011.

Conflicts of interest: the author or authors have no conflicts of interest concerning the data published in this article.

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