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The management of the  "Jet Laga" in athletes.

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The management of "Jet Lag" (1) in athletes.

For the sportsman "internationnal level," many of its major tournaments take place on distant continents, therefore, the proper management of jet lag is essential for an athlete.

(1) Terminology from English, jet: flight reaction, and Lag: offset. English term describing a syndrome resulting from a de-synchronization of the circadian rhythm.

jeg lag Physiology

While some disorders such as fatigue or stress are put directly on the time difference, the jet lag can have other pernicious effects occurring a few days after the flight.
Indeed I disorder of the human internal clock is sure to cause fatigue, digestive disorders (60% of cases) mood disorders and declines in memory function.

The "jet lag" appear at the 4 ┬░ time zone crossed.
It does not depend on the duration of the trip but the number of time zones crossed changes.

So a trip North -> South 8 hours will have no impact on the biological rhythm. Unlike a travel West -> East even shorter, may be deleterious.

According to some studies it is necessary to the body a day of recovery by time zone crossed.

If it is accepted that the diurnal adaptation trips to East is more difficult than those to the west, it is nevertheless advisable, in the latter case, lie in the local time on the first night in order trying to quickly adapt to the time difference. In these conditions, "stretching" the first day, it will be easier to fall asleep quickly.
Conversely, traveling eastward will be more deleterious as "shorten" the first day. In this case, it is the first sunrise local time that it will take priority.

One, see, everything is story of adaptation. If there were no time constraint and money, the ideal would be that athletes depart a few days (one day per time zone crossed in the direction East -> West and a day and a half in time the other direction) before each competition.

1 / Before you go:

Wherever possible, we ask athletes to adjust to the local time a few days before departure. For a trip to the West, will be advised to delay bedtime one hour a day the previous few nights departure.

2 / In the air:

Live immediately to the local time by setting your watch to the time at your destination. If possible, take meals to the destination schedules.
Remember to hydrate yourself by avoiding alcohol, coffee and tea.
For a trip to the West to avoid naps to sleep easily once you arrive.

3 / Once there:

a) "Play" with the sun and light!

The principle of "light therapy" is the blocking of the synthesis of a hormone (melatonin) under the effect of exposure of the body to light. Out, it is this hormone that causes the sleep signal.

-> In the case of travel to the west (where the aim is not to sleep too quickly), we advise the evening out and / or stay in well-lit areas to mitigate the effect of melatonin. Conversely, in the morning, we will take care to avoid exposure to sunlight and wear sunglasses.
-> For a trip to the East, we must emphasize the light exposure in the morning and avoid the evening

b) "Play" with food!

If your trip is to the West, focus, during the first meal foods rich in protein to help you stay awake. For a trip in the opposite direction, we rather choose carbohydrates.

c) Get active!

If possible, it is recommended to athletes to light training on the first night (if possible light) ending 3 to 4 hours before the scheduled sleep.

4 / Medicine and Jet Lag

a) Sleeping pills

-> To the east, according to flight schedules, some athletes benefit from the use of sedatives and sleep inducers favoring drowsiness "on demand" to get 7-8 hours, wake more easy local time.

b) Melatonin

-> As seen above, Melatonin can be used as a regulator of the diurnal cycle. This hormone has been much written it a few years ago, thinking she could solve the problems of insomnia and depressive thymie.

In using "anti Jet Lag", a study had shown that melatonin as fighter pilots were recovering faster and better than those who had taken nothing.

Currently, we do not recommend taking such treatment. If it is readily available to the United States, this hormone is banned in France and few studies demonstrating its safety in the medium and long term.

Doctor Regis BOXELE. - 22 f├ęvrier 2009.

Conflicts of interest: the author or authors have no conflicts of interest concerning the data published in this article.


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The Iroman lack of iron, the other sports too!

Doctor St├ęphane CASCUA.

Iron is essential to your health and performance. It is a central component of hemoglobin. The latter is contained in red blood cells and gives it color. It is the iron that captures oxygen when blood passes through the lungs. It carries the precious gas to muscles. When they arrived, it drops its cargo which then allows the burning of energy substances and muscle contraction.

When you run or when you jump, your heels hit the ground and the fat pad of the foot of the plant is crushed. It is through many blood vessels. These red blood cells burst and release their hemoglobin. Iron is released into the blood and pass into urine.

Muscle contains a twin sister of hemoglobin, myoglobin. The latter also contains a lot of iron which sets some oxygen. This small local reserve allows starting the contraction before the blood vessels do not provide the necessary complement. When you experience aches, your muscle membranes are victims of micro-fissures. Myoglobin and iron leaves the muscle and gaining the blood. The precious metal is eliminated in the urine.

When you make an effort, the majority of blood flow is directed towards your muscles. There remains very little to the digestive tract and the bladder wall. These organs suffer from lack of oxygen and are shaken with every stride. Small areas are damaged and start to bleed. Red blood cells and iron are lost in the feces and in urine.

You enter the assiduous why athletes often lack iron, especially if they do not take care to concoct "menus and recipes" adapted. Sports are even more concerned since all these iron losses are added the massive elimination of blood during menstruation!

That is why it is good to occasionally perform a blood test to assess the stock in body iron. This levy is necessary when it comes to review a state of fatigue. It unnecessary to dose iron in the blood because the body is able to keep within the limits of normal while the reserves are at their lowest! It is necessary to measure levels of "serum ferritin" because this structure is the storage form of iron.

The bone is strengthened or crack in contact sports

Doctor St├ęphane CASCUA.

Each sports movement constitutes a solicitation for the bone structure. At each reception process, the tibia runner undergoes vibratory impacts. Unrolling not, the hiker twists slightly small bone in his foot. Even the body-builders, powerfully contracting its muscles, pulls on his bone.

Each strain injures a little bone of sports. Fortunately, during the rest period, the bone trying to rebuild. If time allows, if they bring him the necessary food, it is repaired! It reconstructs even louder than before as if to prepare for new mechanical attacks. This phenomenon is called by coaches cycle decompensation / overcompensation. This process has been described in many body organs and functions: muscle, stock energy, hormones, etc. It is a key driver of growth.

Thus, it was shown that the well-trained marathoner had stronger bones than sedentary. Indeed, its more dense bone structure, higher in fiber and calcium. In addition, the microscopic architecture of the bone is perfectly oriented along the axis of mechanical stresses.

Indeed, the chemical structure of the bone is comparable to reinforced concrete. The protein network is the steel rods. Calcium is comparable to concrete mired these metal axes. At the hip and pelvis direction of the bone structure is very characteristic. On a radiograph, it is found that the fibers leave the femur, the thigh bone, tilt in, come from hip to withstand the weight of the body resting on the hips. The lines of force from the right leg and left leg meet in the middle of the basin and support each other in the manner of the nave of a church.

Physical activity associated with a sufficiently high protein diet, vitamin D and calcium is a great engine of bone construction. This cocktail is particularly useful to hinge periods of life. During growth, it is necessary to eat 4-5 dairy products every day to build strong bones. It should also move: it is essential to practice a sport requiring the running and jumping at least 3 times a week for 30 minutes. In the absence of impact, bones harden less. It has been shown that a young competitive swimmer had lower bone density than sedentary because he was deprived of gravity during those long hours of pool training. In addition, bone densification stops 25 years. At this age you have made up your bone capital for life!

In adulthood, sport reinforces very hard bone and the amount of calcium necessary for the maintenance of bone is still debated. In case of fracture, the rest of the broken area needed a few weeks to allow to "ensnare" the broken area. In addition, gradually increasing mechanical stress are indispensable to "mechanize" the callus. Again, they help to guide the fabric of the bone in the center of the constraints to prepare him for his mission. An increase in calcium intake in consolidation period is proposed by some doctors without that interest has been really shown.

After menopause, the bone structure is gradually degraded to make the brittle bones is osteoporosis. Ladies, remember, your resistance to hip fracture depends on your diet and your sport for 25 years! If physical activity after menopause can no longer denser bones, reduces the loss of bone tissue. So it is advisable to go see jumping around or jog. It is also good to make the soft gym to maintain bone strength to strength. To make the most of this stimulation, it is again necessary to take 4-5 dairy products daily. It should also go out every day to enjoy the sun and make the vitamin D essential for the absorption and calcium binding. Fresh coordinating sports such as Thai Chi or "balance workshops" have proven effective in reducing the risk of falls and fractures.

If the sporting activity is excessive, the micro-cracks caused by impacts on the bones fail to consolidate over the rest. Rather, these lesions worsen in the next workout. Finally the splits right through bone, it breaks without any violent trauma. It is the stress fracture. In a postmenopausal woman, it was demonstrated that 6 hours of sport load per week may be sufficient to break insidiously bones. Among younger adults, this type of injury is favored by dietary deficiencies and hormonal disorders. Lack of calcium, vitamin D and protein alters the rebuild bone victim of microcracks in the exercise. Insufficiency sex hormones reduces the stimulation microscopic chemical plants be responsible for the synthesis of bone tissue. Functional changes occur when the deep depletion of the body. That kind of burnout is most often diagnosed in women because it causes menstrual irregularities and a cessation of menses. The victim is found in a state of "early menopause". In humans this hormone suffering is more insidious but it exists and its effects on bone density are comparable. The sports overwork cocktail, dietary deficiencies and disappearance of rules typically found in young women anorexic. Faced with a stress fracture, the sports physician must remain vigilant. It should not simply treat a "bone". It has an obligation to support a whole person, he is responsible for seeking overtraining or behavioral disorders.

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