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Too sprains for sports!

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Studies show that women are 5 times more sprains than men. One begins to understand why! Preventive strategies are now resulting in more efficient!
A sprain is a stretching see a ruptured ligament, the cord connecting two bones in joints. The most famous of them is probably the anterior cruciate ligament. It attempts to limit the movement of the knee. It may tear during rotation or flip-flops of this articulation when placed in the vicinity of the extension. His break often requires surgery and rehabilitation for several months. Even well made, that knee 10 times more likely to develop OA than its neighbor! Therefore, the anterior cruciate ligament is often taken as an example and is the subject of attention of scientists!

Too soft tissues.
Female ligaments stretch leave more easily, we speak of laxity. It is likely that evolution has selected this characteristic tissue to promote the opening of the pelvis during childbirth. SCOVILLE showed that individuals the hypermobile individuals were 3 times more sprain of the anterior cruciate ligament. It is unlikely that this very flexible ligament is more fragile ... on the contrary, it leaves stretch longer before breaking. In contrast, the membrane surrounding the joint is so flexible that it too easily from the knee in extension and strong rocking! In this position the ligament is stretched, a simple rotation is enough to break it. Moreover, muscle envelopes are also too soft. The muscles are insufficiently tensioned well to control the joint posture.
Less strong and uncoordinated muscles.
To stabilize the joints, muscles must be strong, steadfast and vigilant. Female hormones are much less effective than male testosterone to give muscle power. One study showed that the articular wear depended more muscle volume than sex. Clearly, a well-muscled woman better control its joint movements and develops osteoarthritis least a puny human! It is also likely to make fewer sprain! Usually, women take delivery of the vicinity of the knee extension ... in a risky position for the cruciate ligament. For lack of strength, joint lock braking replaces muscle. We need more bending to the hamstrings on the back of the thigh, managed to pull the tibia backward and relax the cross. Electrical recordings of muscle contractions show that women too are seeking their quadriceps and hamstrings in their insufficiently jump landing. The tibia is pulled forward, the cross is stretched ... in pre-breaking position!
A specific anatomy
X legs, more typically female, prove dangerous to cross. Bone corridor in which it is situated is narrower. When rotations and flops, he comes faster twist on the banks of the canal. The women's cross is also thinner. He broke for a voltage ... at the corpses! The leggy mannequins without muscle bumping knees on the catwalks ... are at high risk of breaking the cross! Finally, there is justice!
Still hormones!
You learned that female hormones distended ligaments and did not stimulate enough muscle development! Know that in addition, the menstrual cycle is involved in the breakdown of the cross. There are three more risk of a serious knee sprain in the first part of the cycle, between the first and the fourteenth day of the onset of menstruation and ovulation. This is a finding that it is not clear justification! Anyway, in addition to school holiday dates and promotions tour operators, this is an additional parameter to consider before choosing the dates of your next ski holiday! Studies on the preventive value of the pill are divergent. It is likely that newer low-dose are less effective in preventing the risk of rupture of the cruciate.
Awareness and technical alterations!
Several strategies must come together to reduce the risk of severe knee sprain. Henning suggested to basketball players of the first American division to decelerate over 3 steps instead of stopping abruptly. He asked them to turn on rounded trajectories replacing pivots. Injuries have decreased by 89%. One must be aware of the problem and understood the dangerous movements. Four thousand ski instructors who watched a video showing ten typical accidents decreased by 62% failure rate of their cross during the next season! So, remember the basics! Do not you receive strained knee, rocking to the other knee!

Coordination and strengthening!
At each jump, amortize and steady recovery support by bending the knee and left in the center! Fold also the upper body forward to stretch the hamstrings. On the ground, made the journey between studs and hoops. Strengthen your muscles. Even better ! Learn to stop or change direction by taking a "dual support". Balanced simultaneously on the right foot and the left foot. Your joints are more stable; you are more apt to change your path if your opponent assenait you a new feint. Indoor use squats or the press, record 45 ┬░ and machines hamstring. At home, perform squats on one leg, foot on a pillow or mattress. To work the hamstrings, lie down on the floor, bend your knees a little, put your heels on a chair or on a large ball and mount the basin. Whenever possible these exercises are performed successively with the other leg and then to reproduce more specifically the recovery support on one foot. Mattresses and balloon tips are particularly useful because too much weight in stable position freezes your coordination and impairs your ability to respond to the imbalance. Limit easing, women are already very lax! Avoid static stretching position to warm up, they decrease protective muscle elasticity and inhibit contraction reflexes controlling the joint position.

Doctor St├ęphane CASCUA. - 13 f├ęvrier 2012.

Conflicts of interest: the author or authors have no conflicts of interest concerning the data published in this article.


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The Iroman lack of iron, the other sports too!

Doctor St├ęphane CASCUA.

Iron is essential to your health and performance. It is a central component of hemoglobin. The latter is contained in red blood cells and gives it color. It is the iron that captures oxygen when blood passes through the lungs. It carries the precious gas to muscles. When they arrived, it drops its cargo which then allows the burning of energy substances and muscle contraction.

When you run or when you jump, your heels hit the ground and the fat pad of the foot of the plant is crushed. It is through many blood vessels. These red blood cells burst and release their hemoglobin. Iron is released into the blood and pass into urine.

Muscle contains a twin sister of hemoglobin, myoglobin. The latter also contains a lot of iron which sets some oxygen. This small local reserve allows starting the contraction before the blood vessels do not provide the necessary complement. When you experience aches, your muscle membranes are victims of micro-fissures. Myoglobin and iron leaves the muscle and gaining the blood. The precious metal is eliminated in the urine.

When you make an effort, the majority of blood flow is directed towards your muscles. There remains very little to the digestive tract and the bladder wall. These organs suffer from lack of oxygen and are shaken with every stride. Small areas are damaged and start to bleed. Red blood cells and iron are lost in the feces and in urine.

You enter the assiduous why athletes often lack iron, especially if they do not take care to concoct "menus and recipes" adapted. Sports are even more concerned since all these iron losses are added the massive elimination of blood during menstruation!

That is why it is good to occasionally perform a blood test to assess the stock in body iron. This levy is necessary when it comes to review a state of fatigue. It unnecessary to dose iron in the blood because the body is able to keep within the limits of normal while the reserves are at their lowest! It is necessary to measure levels of "serum ferritin" because this structure is the storage form of iron.

The bone is strengthened or crack in contact sports

Doctor St├ęphane CASCUA.

Each sports movement constitutes a solicitation for the bone structure. At each reception process, the tibia runner undergoes vibratory impacts. Unrolling not, the hiker twists slightly small bone in his foot. Even the body-builders, powerfully contracting its muscles, pulls on his bone.

Each strain injures a little bone of sports. Fortunately, during the rest period, the bone trying to rebuild. If time allows, if they bring him the necessary food, it is repaired! It reconstructs even louder than before as if to prepare for new mechanical attacks. This phenomenon is called by coaches cycle decompensation / overcompensation. This process has been described in many body organs and functions: muscle, stock energy, hormones, etc. It is a key driver of growth.

Thus, it was shown that the well-trained marathoner had stronger bones than sedentary. Indeed, its more dense bone structure, higher in fiber and calcium. In addition, the microscopic architecture of the bone is perfectly oriented along the axis of mechanical stresses.

Indeed, the chemical structure of the bone is comparable to reinforced concrete. The protein network is the steel rods. Calcium is comparable to concrete mired these metal axes. At the hip and pelvis direction of the bone structure is very characteristic. On a radiograph, it is found that the fibers leave the femur, the thigh bone, tilt in, come from hip to withstand the weight of the body resting on the hips. The lines of force from the right leg and left leg meet in the middle of the basin and support each other in the manner of the nave of a church.

Physical activity associated with a sufficiently high protein diet, vitamin D and calcium is a great engine of bone construction. This cocktail is particularly useful to hinge periods of life. During growth, it is necessary to eat 4-5 dairy products every day to build strong bones. It should also move: it is essential to practice a sport requiring the running and jumping at least 3 times a week for 30 minutes. In the absence of impact, bones harden less. It has been shown that a young competitive swimmer had lower bone density than sedentary because he was deprived of gravity during those long hours of pool training. In addition, bone densification stops 25 years. At this age you have made up your bone capital for life!

In adulthood, sport reinforces very hard bone and the amount of calcium necessary for the maintenance of bone is still debated. In case of fracture, the rest of the broken area needed a few weeks to allow to "ensnare" the broken area. In addition, gradually increasing mechanical stress are indispensable to "mechanize" the callus. Again, they help to guide the fabric of the bone in the center of the constraints to prepare him for his mission. An increase in calcium intake in consolidation period is proposed by some doctors without that interest has been really shown.

After menopause, the bone structure is gradually degraded to make the brittle bones is osteoporosis. Ladies, remember, your resistance to hip fracture depends on your diet and your sport for 25 years! If physical activity after menopause can no longer denser bones, reduces the loss of bone tissue. So it is advisable to go see jumping around or jog. It is also good to make the soft gym to maintain bone strength to strength. To make the most of this stimulation, it is again necessary to take 4-5 dairy products daily. It should also go out every day to enjoy the sun and make the vitamin D essential for the absorption and calcium binding. Fresh coordinating sports such as Thai Chi or "balance workshops" have proven effective in reducing the risk of falls and fractures.

If the sporting activity is excessive, the micro-cracks caused by impacts on the bones fail to consolidate over the rest. Rather, these lesions worsen in the next workout. Finally the splits right through bone, it breaks without any violent trauma. It is the stress fracture. In a postmenopausal woman, it was demonstrated that 6 hours of sport load per week may be sufficient to break insidiously bones. Among younger adults, this type of injury is favored by dietary deficiencies and hormonal disorders. Lack of calcium, vitamin D and protein alters the rebuild bone victim of microcracks in the exercise. Insufficiency sex hormones reduces the stimulation microscopic chemical plants be responsible for the synthesis of bone tissue. Functional changes occur when the deep depletion of the body. That kind of burnout is most often diagnosed in women because it causes menstrual irregularities and a cessation of menses. The victim is found in a state of "early menopause". In humans this hormone suffering is more insidious but it exists and its effects on bone density are comparable. The sports overwork cocktail, dietary deficiencies and disappearance of rules typically found in young women anorexic. Faced with a stress fracture, the sports physician must remain vigilant. It should not simply treat a "bone". It has an obligation to support a whole person, he is responsible for seeking overtraining or behavioral disorders.

Technical cruciate ligament

By Dr. Nicolas Lefevre

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