Contact us

Make an appointment

our specialists


  01 40 79 40 36






Sports Clinic

36 bd St Marcel

75005 PARIS

Sports clinic Paris

Metro: Saint Marcel

Parking 6 rue test


'Pages chirurgiedusport :


Ce site respecte les principes de la charte HONcode de HON Ce site respecte les principes de la charte HONcode.
Site certifié en partenariat avec la Haute Autorité de Santé (HAS).
Check here


Youtube video

Triathlon: complementary health

Print Article


Until the 1980s, the concept of "specificity" has largely prevailed to access performance. The triathlon and multi-sport raids came shoving dogma. They emphasized the value of diversity to enjoy the phenomena of "transfers" from one discipline to another. In the health field, this variety is complementary to "multiply the benefits and risks divide".

Triathlon: 3 Further activities for the musculoskeletal system.

Alternate assiduously sports practices avoids the musculoskeletal exertion without altering its adaptation. Swimming performed weightless and horizontally reduced bone constraints. In against part, it has demonstrated its inefficiency to prevent osteoporosis (1). Performed at moderate intensity, swimming is often proposed in case of low back pain but is ineffective to prepare for gravity and verticality of the everyday. In this discipline, the cartilage is not impacted. Breaststroke, the amplitude of the lower limbs gestures enables good joint lapping. In crawl, knees, ankles and hips are slightly mobilized contributing less to the chondral trophicity and interest of the work in open chain to stabilize the patella is increasingly controversial. Swimming intensely seeking the upper limbs. The movement of the crawl quickly causing pain of rotator cuff impingement. That's another good reason to brew without complex when practicing triathlon in his "pleasure and health" version. lower limb muscles do not have to take on eccentric constraints. They benefit from the draining effect of horizontality, pressure and fresh water. We understand that this discipline can find a place of choice to actively retrieve the other two activities.


If "ontogeny recapitulates phylogeny", it is surprising that the triathlon recapitulates ontogeny and phylogeny. The triathlete begins its journey in the water, seat of the birth of life and the individual. He moves it horizontally and weightless, his Musculoskeletal undergoes little stress. On his bike, he should recover somewhat. As the child discovering the world on all fours like apes walking through the forest, he became quadrupedalism. His lower limbs are part load and its spine is easily stabilized. At the end of the last transition, as the child is initiating the march and as Lucy eying the savannah, it becomes vertical. Like Homo ergaster in Africa through, it starts running! His legs cashing the full weight of his body. His spine assumes a become more precarious balance.

The triathlon will be beneficial to our health because it prepares us gradually without hypocrisy in our daily biped.

Cycling at part load and without impact does not increase bone density. Pedaling at a good pace, reeling in, promotes articular chondral running minimizing pressures. This is the sport of osteoarthritis and prosthetic. The concentric muscle contraction can acquire good strength without "quartered" tendons. Tendinopathy are exceptional. The spine is delordosis, well balanced thanks to the 5 points of support. If anteflexion is reasonable and frequent position changes, cycling is well tolerated by low back pain and contribute to its rehabilitation.

Because receptions with every stride, running is typically recommended for its osteogenic properties. In case of excess this adaptation tilts bone causes aggression and stress fractures. The plyometric muscle contractions are particularly "mechanising 'for the propulsion chain. However, they can cause "stiffness" disrupting the regularity of training. Sometimes they provoke tendinitis imposing stopping jogging. The influence of race on the cartilage remains debated. With no history of trauma, static disorder or laxity, it does not seem arthrogenic if done at 30 to 50 km per week (2) (3). The spine assumes the impact of each stride and oscillations inherent in the pelvic not. Yet average pressures recorded in the current disc are lower than those measured in the standing position (4)!

According WAYNE (5), 83% of riders have an injury in the year against 66% of triathletes for GALERA (6). Moreover, it shows that three-quarters of the injuries suffered by the triple adapted effortlessly occur running. It also shows that 75% of the wounded managed to continue training using at least one of the other disciplines. VAN MECHELEN (7) found that the probability of injury to the rider increases with the number of weekly releases. Thus, the diversity of practices triathlètiques it help reduce the risk of injury while preserving the beneficial attendance to the cardiovascular system.

Triathlon: 3 disciplines for 3 weekly workouts.

The amount of physical activity beneficial to cardiovascular health remains debated. Institutes prevention
touting 30 minutes of daily brisk walking, minimalist version apparently more accessible sociologically. Cardiologists instead opt for three weekly workouts of 30 minutes to an hour at least 20 minutes at a moderate intensity. The latter is often referred active endurance, it is characterized by a heart rate situated around 75% of maximum and a respiratory rate to "talk but not sing." All these recommendations can be attached to studies showing varying benefits, reducing the risk of heart attack by 30 to 60%. Paffenbarger that of (8) conducted longitudinally seems to give these tips a minimum of coherence. It notes that the benefits of longevity appear from an energy expenditure of 500 kcal per week. They are optimized for 2000 kilocalories with increased lifespan statistically 2 years. The risks outweigh the benefits from 3500 kilocalories.

"Leisure health triathlon" is an excellent opportunity for psychological and sociological offer 3 weekly workouts, one in each discipline. Under these conditions, daily physical activity associated with the sports program is around 2000 calories weekly. This workout is more than enough to finish with ease competitions called "Discovery" or "Promotion" (500 meter swim, 20 km bike, 5 km walk). The sports safely access the status motivating and rewarding "triathlete". The basic program could be the following:

Tuesday: RUNNERS 30 minutes to 1 hour with 20 minutes on medium heat.

Tuesday: SWIMMING, 30 minutes to 1 hour with 20 minutes on medium heat.

Sunday: VELO or SEQUENCE, 1 hour to 1 hour 30 minutes including 20 minutes on medium heat.

... And a few times a year: TRIATHLON "DISCOVERY" medium intensity ...

Triathlon: three sports for brain health!

Psychologically, the variety induced triathlon is definitely a motivator and attendance. From a sociological perspective, this type of practice appears well suited to the stresses of everyday life. The time for this activity is reasonable, far from the image of the Ironman. Everyone can find the organization that fits him swimming noon, downstairs jogging home, cardio room where you can even work transitions (rowing, cycling, carpet), bike week or beautiful ride of the weekend.

Practicing 3 different disciplines, even endurance, is itself the cause of psychomotor development. Here is a sport that struggle in essence against the evils of hyper. Moreover, triathlon training is the gateway to the multi-sports practices. To decline the pleasure and benefit of physiological phenomenon of transfers, the triathlete is happy fan of mountain biking, trail running, cross country skiing or skating. All these activities improve balance. This quality property registered in the central nervous system, is likely to prove very useful to limit the risk of falling when will come the age of osteoporosis.

Three workouts per week of 30 minutes to 1 hour in order to complete some "triathlons Discoveries" is unlikely to be the cause of a harmful addiction to health or desocialising. In this context, it is not addictive, just a "good habit"!

Is the ideal triathlon sport for health?

The triathlon practiced as a competitive hobby seems to respond to the recommendations of prevention institutes or those of cardiologists. The diversity inherent in this multi-sport activity appears to preserve and even participate in the maintenance of the musculoskeletal system. However, the "exercise pyramid" proposed by MARTI (9) refers Switzerland. It adds two weekly sessions of strengthening and stretching. So not to break its top offer our triathletes a weekly session of "cladding" and another stretching. This time, it's perfect!


1) HWANSIK Hwang (1); JONGMYON Bae (1); SEUNGWOOK Hwang (2); HOONKI Park (3); Inyoung Kim (3) Effects of breath-hold diving on bone mineral density of women divers - Joint Bone Spine 2006 - Elsevier.

2) Zatarian et al, Progress of knee osteoarthritis in senior runners and controls: 18 years year longitudinal study. ACR 2004.

3) Zatarian et al Progression of hip osteoarthritis in senior runners and controls: 14 years year longitudinal study. ACR 2005.

4) WILKE HJ, News measuring intradiscal pressure in the activities of daily life. Der Unfallchirurg 1999 Helf 271.

5) WAYNE B in D POUX, technopathy jogging, Novartis Ed., 1998.

6) Gallera et al. Prevalence of triathlon trauma: epidemiological survey in a sample of amateur triathletes. Collection of the XVIII Congress of the French Society of Sports Traumatology. September 2008.

7) VAN MECHELEN in D POUX, technopathy jogging, Novartis Ed. 1998.

8) Paffenbarger, RS, JR; HYDE, RT; WING, AL; LEE, IM; JUNG, DL; Kampert JB. The combination of exchange in physical-activity level and lifestyle characteristics with mortality --other Among Men. N Engl J Med. 1993 Feb 25; 328 (8): 538-545.

9) MARTI B .: MARTIN BW Sportliches Training Bewegung oder im Alltag Optimierung von zur Gesundheit und Lebens-. qualtität. Therapeutische Umschau 58, 189-195.

Doctor Stéphane CASCUA. - 24 janvier 2009.

Conflicts of interest: the author or authors have no conflicts of interest concerning the data published in this article.


Read also ...

The most read articles

Technical cruciate ligament

By Dr. Nicolas Lefevre

More videos

Last publications

Feature: knee prosthesis

total knee replacement

Feature: knee ligaments

Dossier: Ambulatory Surgery ACL

Dossier: meniscus


Feature: Shoulder sportsman

Folder: hip prosthesis

Dossier: break hamstring

Dr. Lefevre proximal anatomie_ischio_jambier_rupture chirurgiedusport

Dossier: prosthetic and sports

hip replacement and knee and sports

Dossier: PRP

Chirurgiedusport - Who are we - Contact us - Legal Notice - Web design Digitaline - EMC2 Studio development - Clinique du Sport