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Triathlon: complementary health

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Until the 1980s, the concept of "specificity" has largely prevailed to access performance. The triathlon and multi-sport raids came shoving dogma. They emphasized the value of diversity to enjoy the phenomena of "transfers" from one discipline to another. In the health field, this variety is complementary to "multiply the benefits and risks divide".

Triathlon: 3 Further activities for the musculoskeletal system.

Alternate assiduously sports practices avoids the musculoskeletal exertion without altering its adaptation. Swimming performed weightless and horizontally reduced bone constraints. In against part, it has demonstrated its inefficiency to prevent osteoporosis (1). Performed at moderate intensity, swimming is often proposed in case of low back pain but is ineffective to prepare for gravity and verticality of the everyday. In this discipline, the cartilage is not impacted. Breaststroke, the amplitude of the lower limbs gestures enables good joint lapping. In crawl, knees, ankles and hips are slightly mobilized contributing less to the chondral trophicity and interest of the work in open chain to stabilize the patella is increasingly controversial. Swimming intensely seeking the upper limbs. The movement of the crawl quickly causing pain of rotator cuff impingement. That's another good reason to brew without complex when practicing triathlon in his "pleasure and health" version. lower limb muscles do not have to take on eccentric constraints. They benefit from the draining effect of horizontality, pressure and fresh water. We understand that this discipline can find a place of choice to actively retrieve the other two activities.


If "ontogeny recapitulates phylogeny", it is surprising that the triathlon recapitulates ontogeny and phylogeny. The triathlete begins its journey in the water, seat of the birth of life and the individual. He moves it horizontally and weightless, his Musculoskeletal undergoes little stress. On his bike, he should recover somewhat. As the child discovering the world on all fours like apes walking through the forest, he became quadrupedalism. His lower limbs are part load and its spine is easily stabilized. At the end of the last transition, as the child is initiating the march and as Lucy eying the savannah, it becomes vertical. Like Homo ergaster in Africa through, it starts running! His legs cashing the full weight of his body. His spine assumes a become more precarious balance.

The triathlon will be beneficial to our health because it prepares us gradually without hypocrisy in our daily biped.

Cycling at part load and without impact does not increase bone density. Pedaling at a good pace, reeling in, promotes articular chondral running minimizing pressures. This is the sport of osteoarthritis and prosthetic. The concentric muscle contraction can acquire good strength without "quartered" tendons. Tendinopathy are exceptional. The spine is delordosis, well balanced thanks to the 5 points of support. If anteflexion is reasonable and frequent position changes, cycling is well tolerated by low back pain and contribute to its rehabilitation.

Because receptions with every stride, running is typically recommended for its osteogenic properties. In case of excess this adaptation tilts bone causes aggression and stress fractures. The plyometric muscle contractions are particularly "mechanising 'for the propulsion chain. However, they can cause "stiffness" disrupting the regularity of training. Sometimes they provoke tendinitis imposing stopping jogging. The influence of race on the cartilage remains debated. With no history of trauma, static disorder or laxity, it does not seem arthrogenic if done at 30 to 50 km per week (2) (3). The spine assumes the impact of each stride and oscillations inherent in the pelvic not. Yet average pressures recorded in the current disc are lower than those measured in the standing position (4)!

According WAYNE (5), 83% of riders have an injury in the year against 66% of triathletes for GALERA (6). Moreover, it shows that three-quarters of the injuries suffered by the triple adapted effortlessly occur running. It also shows that 75% of the wounded managed to continue training using at least one of the other disciplines. VAN MECHELEN (7) found that the probability of injury to the rider increases with the number of weekly releases. Thus, the diversity of practices triathlètiques it help reduce the risk of injury while preserving the beneficial attendance to the cardiovascular system.

Triathlon: 3 disciplines for 3 weekly workouts.

The amount of physical activity beneficial to cardiovascular health remains debated. Institutes prevention
touting 30 minutes of daily brisk walking, minimalist version apparently more accessible sociologically. Cardiologists instead opt for three weekly workouts of 30 minutes to an hour at least 20 minutes at a moderate intensity. The latter is often referred active endurance, it is characterized by a heart rate situated around 75% of maximum and a respiratory rate to "talk but not sing." All these recommendations can be attached to studies showing varying benefits, reducing the risk of heart attack by 30 to 60%. Paffenbarger that of (8) conducted longitudinally seems to give these tips a minimum of coherence. It notes that the benefits of longevity appear from an energy expenditure of 500 kcal per week. They are optimized for 2000 kilocalories with increased lifespan statistically 2 years. The risks outweigh the benefits from 3500 kilocalories.

"Leisure health triathlon" is an excellent opportunity for psychological and sociological offer 3 weekly workouts, one in each discipline. Under these conditions, daily physical activity associated with the sports program is around 2000 calories weekly. This workout is more than enough to finish with ease competitions called "Discovery" or "Promotion" (500 meter swim, 20 km bike, 5 km walk). The sports safely access the status motivating and rewarding "triathlete". The basic program could be the following:

Tuesday: RUNNERS 30 minutes to 1 hour with 20 minutes on medium heat.

Tuesday: SWIMMING, 30 minutes to 1 hour with 20 minutes on medium heat.

Sunday: VELO or SEQUENCE, 1 hour to 1 hour 30 minutes including 20 minutes on medium heat.

... And a few times a year: TRIATHLON "DISCOVERY" medium intensity ...

Triathlon: three sports for brain health!

Psychologically, the variety induced triathlon is definitely a motivator and attendance. From a sociological perspective, this type of practice appears well suited to the stresses of everyday life. The time for this activity is reasonable, far from the image of the Ironman. Everyone can find the organization that fits him swimming noon, downstairs jogging home, cardio room where you can even work transitions (rowing, cycling, carpet), bike week or beautiful ride of the weekend.

Practicing 3 different disciplines, even endurance, is itself the cause of psychomotor development. Here is a sport that struggle in essence against the evils of hyper. Moreover, triathlon training is the gateway to the multi-sports practices. To decline the pleasure and benefit of physiological phenomenon of transfers, the triathlete is happy fan of mountain biking, trail running, cross country skiing or skating. All these activities improve balance. This quality property registered in the central nervous system, is likely to prove very useful to limit the risk of falling when will come the age of osteoporosis.

Three workouts per week of 30 minutes to 1 hour in order to complete some "triathlons Discoveries" is unlikely to be the cause of a harmful addiction to health or desocialising. In this context, it is not addictive, just a "good habit"!

Is the ideal triathlon sport for health?

The triathlon practiced as a competitive hobby seems to respond to the recommendations of prevention institutes or those of cardiologists. The diversity inherent in this multi-sport activity appears to preserve and even participate in the maintenance of the musculoskeletal system. However, the "exercise pyramid" proposed by MARTI (9) refers Switzerland. It adds two weekly sessions of strengthening and stretching. So not to break its top offer our triathletes a weekly session of "cladding" and another stretching. This time, it's perfect!


1) HWANSIK Hwang (1); JONGMYON Bae (1); SEUNGWOOK Hwang (2); HOONKI Park (3); Inyoung Kim (3) Effects of breath-hold diving on bone mineral density of women divers - Joint Bone Spine 2006 - Elsevier.

2) Zatarian et al, Progress of knee osteoarthritis in senior runners and controls: 18 years year longitudinal study. ACR 2004.

3) Zatarian et al Progression of hip osteoarthritis in senior runners and controls: 14 years year longitudinal study. ACR 2005.

4) WILKE HJ, News measuring intradiscal pressure in the activities of daily life. Der Unfallchirurg 1999 Helf 271.

5) WAYNE B in D POUX, technopathy jogging, Novartis Ed., 1998.

6) Gallera et al. Prevalence of triathlon trauma: epidemiological survey in a sample of amateur triathletes. Collection of the XVIII Congress of the French Society of Sports Traumatology. September 2008.

7) VAN MECHELEN in D POUX, technopathy jogging, Novartis Ed. 1998.

8) Paffenbarger, RS, JR; HYDE, RT; WING, AL; LEE, IM; JUNG, DL; Kampert JB. The combination of exchange in physical-activity level and lifestyle characteristics with mortality --other Among Men. N Engl J Med. 1993 Feb 25; 328 (8): 538-545.

9) MARTI B .: MARTIN BW Sportliches Training Bewegung oder im Alltag Optimierung von zur Gesundheit und Lebens-. qualtität. Therapeutische Umschau 58, 189-195.

Doctor Stéphane CASCUA. - 24 janvier 2009.

Conflicts of interest: the author or authors have no conflicts of interest concerning the data published in this article.


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The Iroman lack of iron, the other sports too!

Doctor Stéphane CASCUA.

Iron is essential to your health and performance. It is a central component of hemoglobin. The latter is contained in red blood cells and gives it color. It is the iron that captures oxygen when blood passes through the lungs. It carries the precious gas to muscles. When they arrived, it drops its cargo which then allows the burning of energy substances and muscle contraction.

When you run or when you jump, your heels hit the ground and the fat pad of the foot of the plant is crushed. It is through many blood vessels. These red blood cells burst and release their hemoglobin. Iron is released into the blood and pass into urine.

Muscle contains a twin sister of hemoglobin, myoglobin. The latter also contains a lot of iron which sets some oxygen. This small local reserve allows starting the contraction before the blood vessels do not provide the necessary complement. When you experience aches, your muscle membranes are victims of micro-fissures. Myoglobin and iron leaves the muscle and gaining the blood. The precious metal is eliminated in the urine.

When you make an effort, the majority of blood flow is directed towards your muscles. There remains very little to the digestive tract and the bladder wall. These organs suffer from lack of oxygen and are shaken with every stride. Small areas are damaged and start to bleed. Red blood cells and iron are lost in the feces and in urine.

You enter the assiduous why athletes often lack iron, especially if they do not take care to concoct "menus and recipes" adapted. Sports are even more concerned since all these iron losses are added the massive elimination of blood during menstruation!

That is why it is good to occasionally perform a blood test to assess the stock in body iron. This levy is necessary when it comes to review a state of fatigue. It unnecessary to dose iron in the blood because the body is able to keep within the limits of normal while the reserves are at their lowest! It is necessary to measure levels of "serum ferritin" because this structure is the storage form of iron.

The bone is strengthened or crack in contact sports

Doctor Stéphane CASCUA.

Each sports movement constitutes a solicitation for the bone structure. At each reception process, the tibia runner undergoes vibratory impacts. Unrolling not, the hiker twists slightly small bone in his foot. Even the body-builders, powerfully contracting its muscles, pulls on his bone.

Each strain injures a little bone of sports. Fortunately, during the rest period, the bone trying to rebuild. If time allows, if they bring him the necessary food, it is repaired! It reconstructs even louder than before as if to prepare for new mechanical attacks. This phenomenon is called by coaches cycle decompensation / overcompensation. This process has been described in many body organs and functions: muscle, stock energy, hormones, etc. It is a key driver of growth.

Thus, it was shown that the well-trained marathoner had stronger bones than sedentary. Indeed, its more dense bone structure, higher in fiber and calcium. In addition, the microscopic architecture of the bone is perfectly oriented along the axis of mechanical stresses.

Indeed, the chemical structure of the bone is comparable to reinforced concrete. The protein network is the steel rods. Calcium is comparable to concrete mired these metal axes. At the hip and pelvis direction of the bone structure is very characteristic. On a radiograph, it is found that the fibers leave the femur, the thigh bone, tilt in, come from hip to withstand the weight of the body resting on the hips. The lines of force from the right leg and left leg meet in the middle of the basin and support each other in the manner of the nave of a church.

Physical activity associated with a sufficiently high protein diet, vitamin D and calcium is a great engine of bone construction. This cocktail is particularly useful to hinge periods of life. During growth, it is necessary to eat 4-5 dairy products every day to build strong bones. It should also move: it is essential to practice a sport requiring the running and jumping at least 3 times a week for 30 minutes. In the absence of impact, bones harden less. It has been shown that a young competitive swimmer had lower bone density than sedentary because he was deprived of gravity during those long hours of pool training. In addition, bone densification stops 25 years. At this age you have made up your bone capital for life!

In adulthood, sport reinforces very hard bone and the amount of calcium necessary for the maintenance of bone is still debated. In case of fracture, the rest of the broken area needed a few weeks to allow to "ensnare" the broken area. In addition, gradually increasing mechanical stress are indispensable to "mechanize" the callus. Again, they help to guide the fabric of the bone in the center of the constraints to prepare him for his mission. An increase in calcium intake in consolidation period is proposed by some doctors without that interest has been really shown.

After menopause, the bone structure is gradually degraded to make the brittle bones is osteoporosis. Ladies, remember, your resistance to hip fracture depends on your diet and your sport for 25 years! If physical activity after menopause can no longer denser bones, reduces the loss of bone tissue. So it is advisable to go see jumping around or jog. It is also good to make the soft gym to maintain bone strength to strength. To make the most of this stimulation, it is again necessary to take 4-5 dairy products daily. It should also go out every day to enjoy the sun and make the vitamin D essential for the absorption and calcium binding. Fresh coordinating sports such as Thai Chi or "balance workshops" have proven effective in reducing the risk of falls and fractures.

If the sporting activity is excessive, the micro-cracks caused by impacts on the bones fail to consolidate over the rest. Rather, these lesions worsen in the next workout. Finally the splits right through bone, it breaks without any violent trauma. It is the stress fracture. In a postmenopausal woman, it was demonstrated that 6 hours of sport load per week may be sufficient to break insidiously bones. Among younger adults, this type of injury is favored by dietary deficiencies and hormonal disorders. Lack of calcium, vitamin D and protein alters the rebuild bone victim of microcracks in the exercise. Insufficiency sex hormones reduces the stimulation microscopic chemical plants be responsible for the synthesis of bone tissue. Functional changes occur when the deep depletion of the body. That kind of burnout is most often diagnosed in women because it causes menstrual irregularities and a cessation of menses. The victim is found in a state of "early menopause". In humans this hormone suffering is more insidious but it exists and its effects on bone density are comparable. The sports overwork cocktail, dietary deficiencies and disappearance of rules typically found in young women anorexic. Faced with a stress fracture, the sports physician must remain vigilant. It should not simply treat a "bone". It has an obligation to support a whole person, he is responsible for seeking overtraining or behavioral disorders.

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